Difference Between A Virus and Bacteria

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Unlike bacteria, viruses can’t survive without a host; they can only reproduce by attaching themselves to other cells (WebMD, 2020). The virus invades and hijacks the cell and takes over its genetic code as it moves through the body. Think of the virus as a person who has gone to Kinko’s and made million of copies of emails to send all your friends in your address book (Oz and Roizen, 2005).

We can not live without bacteria, they aid in digest and add nutrients to our food choices (Oz & Roizen, 2005). Too much bacteria can cause infection and left untreated bacteria can cause permanent damage to the immune system, without the use of antibiotics (Oz & Roizen, 2005).

Unlike bacteria, most viruses do cause disease, and they’re are quite specific about the cells they attack. Certain viruses attack cells in the liver, respiratory system, or the blood and in some cases, viruses target bacteria (WebMD, 2020). Virus do not response to antibiotics, and can have negative effects by killing only susceptible bacteria and allowing the more dangerous resistant strains of the virus to get stronger (Oz & Roizen, 2005).

Virus can be transmitted by hand-to-hand or mouth-to-mouth and need a host to replicate (common cold, COVID-19). A secondary bacterial infection can occur with a virus, producing thick colored mucus (Oz & Roizen, 2005).

It is difficult to determine whether an illness is viral or bacterial because many ailments, including pneumonia, meningitis, and diarrhea can be caused by either. Your doctor can determine the cause by listening to your medical history and doing a physical exam (WebMD, 2020). The examples of bacteria and virus are as follows: Bacteria: Pimples, Chlamydia, Strep Throat Virus: Common Cold, Mononucleosis, HIV, Chicken Pox, Shingles, Herpes

If you have a sore throat and it doesn’t feel better within 48 hours, you should see a doctor to determine if its bacterial and if you are in need of an antibiotic (Oz & Roizen, 2005). This post is not intended to replace your physician or a trip to the clinic but to keep you informed. Stay well!!


Oz, M, and Roizen, M. (2005). YOU: The owner’s manual: An insider’s guide to the body that will make you healthier and younger, Harper Resource, New York, NY.

WebMD. (2020). Bacterial and Viral Infections, Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/bacterial-and-viral-infections#2-5

Benefits of A Good Cup of Coffee!

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I personally do not drink coffee because it makes me hyperactive and jittery. I can honestly say that after drinking one cup of coffee while working on the night shift in the intensive care unit; I gave 26 bed baths and changed all the beds for the patients in the unit that night.

Many American’s swear that they can’t start their day with having a cup of coffee. It is said that coffee is a universal drink and enjoyed by many around the world.

Coffee is taunted as an antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory, thats protects the brain and liver, counteracts depression and improves attention.

It has over 1000 actives compounds and decaffeined coffee has similar properties to normal coffee. Avoid drinking coffee in the evening hours to prevent insomnia and should be taken in moderation.

Coffee has a positive affect on the brain and its neurotransmitters, because of the caffeine, which is also found in teas, low-calorie soft drinks and chocolate. The benefits of caffeine include the following:

  1. Increases energy and makes you feel tired, because of the caffeine.
  2. Caffeine is one of the few natural substances proven to aid fat burning.
  3. Caffeine can increase adrenaline levels and release fatty acids from your fat tissues. It also leads to significant improvements in physical performance.
  4. Coffee contains several important nutrients, including riboflavin, pantothenic acid, manganese, potassium, magnesium and niacin.
  5. Several observational studies show that coffee drinkers have a much lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
  6. Coffee drinkers have a 65% lower risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease.
  7. Coffee drinkers have up to a 60% lower risk of getting Parkinson’s disease,
  8. Coffee may protect against cirrhosis — people who drink 4 or more cups per day have up to an 80% lower risk.
  9. In a study , women who drank 4 or more cups of coffee per day had a 20% lower risk of becoming depressed and 53% less likely to die by suicide.
  10. Coffee drinkers have a lower risk of liver and colorectal cancer.
  11. Coffee may cause mild increases in blood pressure, which usually diminish over time. Coffee drinkers do not have an increased risk of heart disease and have a slightly lower risk of stroke.
  12. Coffee drinkers live longer and have a lower risk of premature death because of they are less likely to get many diseases.
  13. In fact, it said that coffee may be one of the healthiest beverages on the planet.

On another note too much caffeine can cause irregular heart beats, difficulty with diabetes, stomach upsets, anxiety, and migraines. Men with enlarged prostates can have urethral spasms due to increased amounts of caffeine. Remember caffeine can be addictive, but it does appear the benefits may out way the negative effects.

But with that said, have a cup of coffee and enjoy!


Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 49(1), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44

Gunnars, K. (2018). 13 Health Benefits of Caffeine. Healthline, Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/top-13-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-coffee#section1

Truth About Menopause

Menopause is a sign that the reproduction hormones have decreased. Both sexes experience menopause. Women experience hot flashes, insomnia and a decrease in vagina fullness. According to Rozen and Oz (2005) the onset for men is gradual and not as clearly defined.

Dr. Northrup stays “healthy ovaries continue to make small amounts of hormones for our entire lives—especially testosterone. And contrary to outmoded science, they do NOT stop functioning after menopause! Most importantly, effectively removing your ovaries can mean an increased risk for fatal coronary artery disease, cognitive impairment, and Parkinson’s disease. And these risks outweigh the reduced risk for fatal ovarian cancer that is associated with elective ovarian removal. But, even if you have already had your ovaries removed, there are ways you can mitigate these risks”(https://www.drnorthrup.com/video/hysterectomy-how-to-keep-your-ovaries/#comments

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Dr. Christine Northrup, Menopause, Retrieved from https://www.drnorthrup.com/video/hysterectomy-how-to-keep-your-ovaries/#comments

Aloe Vera

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The gel from the Aloe Vera plant has been uses for thousand of years for healing and softening the skin. Some consider it a miracle plan for universal health. It grows on all continents and replicates itself. There are various species of aloe that have many nutritional and medical properties.

The fresh gel is rich in micro-nutrients: vitamins, (A,B,C, and E) and mineral salts (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, chlorine, iron, and zinc). The aloe vera plant can be planted under ground like a pineapple and nature does the rest. It is hardy plant and easy to grow.

Once the plant is cut width wise, the clear pulp can be collected for use. The pulp of aloe vera plant is commonly used for burns and abrasions and aid in healing. It also can be used as a skin lotion, that rejuvenates and helps to eliminate premature aging. Aloe vera also hydrates the skin, acts as an astringent and has antibacterial properties.

Aloe vera juice can aid with constipation if ingested. The liquid of the leaves contains anthraquinones with stimulates the intestinal tract, and can cause stomach cramps.

Just keeping you informed. Stay healthy and well!


Aloe Vulgaris, Retrieved from google app Plantes Medicinales


The Wondrous Pineapple

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Pineapples grow in the ground and are naturally sweet. The enzymes and antioxidants found in the fruit have health benefits that are low in calories and rich in minerals.

There are two types of pineapple in the United State. Cylinder-shaped, with small spiky leaves known as the “Smooth Cayenne”, and the “Extra Sweet” variety that was created by scientist in a lab in Hawaii. There are many benefits to consuming pineapple juice or eating the juicy favorable fruit.

Benefits Include:

  1. Aids in digestion because it is high in fiber.
  2. Assist with symptoms of a cold, due to high levels of vitamin C, and the reduction of mucus in the respiratory tract.
  3. Strengthens bones, because of minerals, know as manganese that is essential for bone growth and maintenance.
  4. Pineapples have an astringent agent that may assist with your oral health by strengthening your teeth and gums because it works to tighten muscles and skin within the body.
  5. May assist with healthy vision, because of beta-carotene in the plant.
  6. Pineapple is considered the healing fruit because of vitamin C that helps creates protein collagen with other nutrients.
  7. It also has anti-inflammatory properties because of bromelain.
  8. Vitamin C and antioxidants found in the pineapple are great immunity boosters.
  9. Blood pressure and blood circulation are improved due to potassium and copper found in the fruit.
  10. May reduce the risk of cancer.
  11. Pineapple is great for the skin and hair.
  12. Natural way to enhance your energy.
  13. Pineapple has serotonin which is a natural stress buster that keeps nerves and hormones relaxed.

This is for informational purposes only and not a suggestion for treatment, or cure but to add to your health and wellness.


Health Benefits of Pineapple, Retrieved from http://www.WebMD.com

10 Reasons for Pineapple-Pineapple Information, Retrieved from http://www.facty.com

20 Benefits of Pineapple for Health, Skin and Hair, Retrieved from www. medlife.com

Essential Oils

Essential oils can be an alternative for over the counter pain medications, a sleeping aid, like lavender, or have the benefits of eucalyptus that has both analgesic, antiseptic and antiviral effects.

Essential oils have been used for centuries to assist in healing and treatment. These oils were used in Biblical times, ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. In the twentieth century a French chemist Rene’-Maurice Gattefosse’ discovered using pure lavender on a burn that he sustained in his lab, to reduced the pain, scarring and enhanced healing of the burn (Kennedy, 2016). During World War II a shortage of antibiotics was experienced and essential oils were used to treat wounded soldiers, as a result infections were halted and reduced (Kennedy, 2016).

Pure essential oils come straight from nature, and can be used to improve your health and wellness. They contain no wax, dyes, fillers or chemicals from questionable sources; and if they are used correctly they pose no harmful side effects (Kennedy, 2016).

Essential oils can be delivered through inhalation or topically. Either way you can reduce pain, promote healing, cleansing or speed up detoxification. This is not a call for you to give up your current medical regime but an offer of new information to enhance your health and wellness.

Just keeping your informed!


Kennedy (2016). The Portable Essential Oils, A Pocket Reference of Everyday Remedies for Natural & Wellness. Sterling Publishing Company. NY, New York.

Five principles of self-healing and wellness.

According to Dr. Maoshing Ni, (2008) the five principles of self-healing and wellness include: 1. diet and nutrition, 2. herb and supplements, 3. exercise and acupuncture, 4. lifestyle and environment, 5. mind and spirit.

I subscribe to everything on this list but acupuncture, . Please consult your physician before changing or stopping any medication. Remember food can also be medicine so consider your diet very carefully to ensure great outcomes. Be deliberate about changing and maintaining your health and wellness and you will be successful.

Just Keeping You Informed.


Recently the First Lady, Michelle Obama, stated in her podcast that she was experiencing low grade depression due to the exhausting pandemic and resurgence of the fight for racial justice.

“These are not, they are not fulfilling times, spiritually,” she said. “I know that I am dealing with some form of low-grade depression. Not just because of the quarantine, but because of the racial strife, and just seeing this administration, watching the hypocrisy of it, day in and day out, is dispiriting.”

“I’m waking up in the middle of the night because I’m worrying about something or there’s a heaviness,” she continued. Obama said she tries “to make sure I get a workout in,” but that there have been “periods throughout this quarantine, where I just have felt too low.”

Low grade depression is not a medical diagnosis, its depression (Miller, 2020). Depression is exhibited by the following symptoms; loss of interest and activities that you once enjoyed, fatigue, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating, remembering and making decisions, insomnia, early morning waking, or oversleeping, change in appetite, weight gain, thoughts of death or suicide, restlessness and or irritability (Leyse-Wallace, 2008)

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Some of the things you can do to address your depression is to unplug from the stressors Talk to friends, family or seek professional help. Eat well and exercise. Everyone experiences some depression in their life. The issue is related to how long is the experience and is it interfering with your life and daily activities for more than two weeks according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) . Those with suicidal thoughts need immediate assistance and intervention and should seek assistance from a mental health professional.

Please take care of yourself and family! Remember to exercise and eat well and reduce your sugar intake.

Leyse-Wallace, R. (2008). Linking nutrition to mental health: A scientific exploration. iUniverse.

Miller, K (2020). Michelle Obama Says She Has 'Low-Grade Depression'—Here's What That Means, According to Experts. Retrieved from https://www.health.com/condition/depression/michelle-obama-low-grade-depression

Guided Imagery

"Guided imagery teaches you how to use your imagination to relax, reduce stress, relieve symptoms, solve problems, and even stimulate a healing responses in your body." (Rossman,2005).

Rossman, M. (2005). The Healing Mind. The power of imagery.relaxing into healing.

I was introduced to this interesting modality in my graduate program and found it very helpful.
In fact I utilized the technique to reduce my pain related to a toothache while at a school conference, because I did not have access to a dentist.  The technique was so effective I did not follow up with a dentist until three weeks later.

Here’s is a sample of guided imagery used in relaxation. Episode 92: Mindful Moments Releasing Tension Guided Imagery with Marilyn Crosby Saybrook Insights with President Nathan Long

Let me know if you enjoyed the session.

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Just keeping you informed.

Dr. Marilyn Crosby

COVID-19 Testing

According to the FDA website there are two types of COVID-19 testing. A diagnostic test, that can show if you have an active coronavirus infection and if positive you should take steps to quarantine or isolate yourself from others. Currently there are two types of diagnostic tests which detect the virus – molecular tests, such as RT-PCR tests, that detect the virus’s genetic material, and antigen tests that detect specific proteins on the surface of the virus.

An antibody test looks for antibodies that are made by your immune system in response to a threat, such as a specific virus. Antibodies can help fight infections. Antibodies can take several days or weeks to develop after you have an infection and may stay in your blood for several weeks or more after recovery. Antibody tests should not be used to diagnose an active coronavirus infection. At this time researchers do not know if the presence of antibodies means that you are immune to the coronavirus in the future.

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Different Types of Coronavirus Tests

 Molecular TestAntigen TestAntibody Test
Also known as…Diagnostic test, viral test, molecular test, nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), RT-PCR test, LAMP testRapid diagnostic test (Some molecular tests are also rapid tests.)Serological test, serology, blood test, serology test
How the sample is taken…Nasal or throat swab (most tests) Saliva (a few tests)Nasal or throat swabFinger stick or blood draw
How long it takes to get results…Same day (some locations) or up to a weekOne hour or lessSame day (many locations) or 1-3 days
Is another test needed…This test is typically highly accurate and usually does not need to be repeated.Positive results are usually highly accurate but negative results may need to be confirmed with a molecular test.Sometimes a second antibody test is needed for accurate results.

Just keeping you informed.

Coronavirus Basics, FDA, (7/16/20), Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consume

As of mid-July, 2020, McKinsey Industry, claimed there was a shortage of the supplies needed to collect samples (such as swabs and viral-transport mediums) and a limited number of testing sites. 

This has led to long waiting times for a COVID-19 test.  This has affected a key segment of the population (such as healthcare workers) going untested.  With that said currently (August, 2020) many hospitals are only testing patients that are symptomatic. Please continue to wear a mask, social distance and wash your hands!  To reporting adverse events

Bennam, M., Dey, A., Gambell, T., and Talwar, V. (July 15, 2020) COVID-19: Overcoming Supply Shortages for Diagnostic Testing https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/pharmaceuticals-and-medical-products/our-insights/covid-19-overcoming-supply-shortages-for-diagnostic-testing#

Coronavirus Basics, FDE. (07/16/20). Retrieved from http://www. fda/gov/consumers/consume.

Dr. Marilyn Crosby

What Are the Benefits of Lemons?

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Hot lemonade has been used for the flu since the Roman empire. Lemons are very acidic and makes a great deterrent to bacteria and viruses, but highly alkalizing to the body when digested. This is because lemons are high in vitamin C, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and an excellent expectorant. Lemons also contains a plethora of other nutrients that are good for the body such as phosphorus, sodium, zinc, copper, selenium and iron. As an essential oil, the lemon is a great astringent for oily skin and acne (Kennedy, 2016).

The benefits of lemons have been touted as a remedy for many things including fever, teeth whitener as well as an additive for many foods and medications. This is not a suggestion to stop seeing your physician if you have any of these issues but lemon can be used as a supplement to assist you in your journey of wellness.

I drink lemon water regularly and keep it in the refrigerator so I can start my day with a boast of vitamin C in the morning. You can chose to drink lemonade hot or cold. I drink hot lemonade as an alternative to coffee and tea when I want something warm to drink without the caffeine. It is easy to make, chop a whole lemon and placed it in a cup of boiling water for 5 minutes, strain, add honey and fresh ginger. Both are refreshing and beneficial for the body.

Enjoy and stay well!


Publications International Ltd (2017). Boost Your Immune System: Strategies for Strengthening Your Immune System with Foods, Herbs, Stress Management, and More!

Return to product information

Woloshyn, T. (2007). The Complete Master Cleanse: A Step-by-Step Guide to Maximizing the Benefits of the Lemonade Diet.

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